Timeline of Middle Eastern History

From Academic Kids

This timeline tries to compile dates of important historical events that happened in or that lead to the rise of the Middle East. The Middle East is the territory that comprises today's Egypt, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Israel, the Gulf States, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Oman. The Middle East with its particular characteristics was not to emerge until late second millennium AD. To refer to a concept similar that of today's Middle East but earlier in time, the term Ancient Near East is used.

This list is intended as a timeline of the history of the Middle East. For more detailed information, see articles on the histories of individual countries. See Ancient Near East for ancient history of the Middle East.
Contents

Prehistoric and Ancient Period

main article: Ancient Near East

9th millennium BC (Beginning of the Neolithic time period of the Holocene epoch)

8th millennium BC

7th millennium BC

6th millennium BC

5th millennium BC

4th millennium BC

Missing image
Ancient_Orient.png
Overview map of the Ancient Near East


(see also Sumer: Ur, Uruk, Kish, Susa)

3rd millennium BC

2nd millennium BC

(see also Moses, Exodus, Hammurabi, List of Pharaohs, Aegean civilization)

The Arab Middle East

1st millennium BC

The Oriental Empires about

Inventions, Discoveries, Introductions

  • Iron use becomes widespread
  • The Phoenicians propagate the phonetic alphabet in the Mediterranian
  • Many major religious and philosophical viewpoints are created, further explored or codified

(see also: Roman Republic, David, Homer, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Lydia, Median Empire, Chaldean Empire)


1st millennium AD

Missing image
Arabic_ascendency_1884.jpg
The "The Eighth Progressive Map - Arabic Acendency; showing (a,)The Arabic Empire in its greatest extent. (b,) The world at the beginning of the eighth century (Christianity on the point of being crushed by the Moslems.). (c,)The four Christian empires (Byzantine, Longobardian, Merovingian, and Anglo-Saxon.)."
The map shows the extension of the Caliphate under Al-Walid I, who reigned from 705 - 715



Inventions, discoveries, introductions

  • Algebra developed in the Middle East
  • Chess developed, gaining widespread use

(at the same time: Beginning of the Middle Ages in Europe)

(see also: Paul of Tarsus, apostle to the gentiles created Christianity, Constantine I, Attila, Muhammad, al-Khwarizmi)

2nd millennium AD

(see also: Genghis Khan)

Turks, Crusaders and Mongols

(The dominance of the Arabs came to a sudden end in the mid 11th century with the arrival of the Seljuk Turks)

(see also: Turks, Crusaders, Mongols)

The Ottoman era

(circa since 1453 when Ottoman emirs captured Constantinople)

Missing image
Ottoman_empire_1481-1683.jpg
, -

(main article: History of the Ottoman Empire)

European domination of the Arabic and Turkish regions (especially since WWI)

  • 1882 - September 13 - British troops occupy Cairo - Egypt becomes British protectorate
  • 1922 - February 28 - Egypt is granted independence from British occupation.

Contemporary Middle East

(circa since WWII)


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